A grass substitute for dry, shady areas under trees. Early accounts of the landscape of the interior of Pennsylvania contain frequent references like this descriptive passage by Fortescue Cumming while crossing Tuscarora Mountain in 1807, "view to the westward, though extensive, was cheerless and gloomy, over a broken and mountainous or rather hilly country, covered with forests, chiefly of the dark and sombre pine . Some particularly attractive varieties are the: Eastern Redbud (Cercis canadensis) with its bright pink burst of color in spring; Smooth Sumac (Rhus glabra) is showy in the fall with brilliant red leaves. Native Trees and Shrubs for Pennsylvania Properties. Inflorescence red-purple in very early spring. Pennsylvania's Forest HeritageA brief history of Penn's WoodsCutting down the trees—Early lumbering—The "Great Clearcut"The forest todayToo many deerImpact of pests and diseasesNative versus introduced speciesRare speciesForest successionMajor forest typesThe value of trees, Chapter 3. How to identify trees Identification Keys, GlossaryAppendixTree ListsNative Trees that are Important Food Sources for Moths and ButterfliesSmall to Moderate-size Native Trees with Conspicuous FlowersNative Trees with Edible FruitsEndangered, Threatened, and Rare Trees of PennsylvaniaNative Early Successional Trees (sun-loving)Native Trees of Riparian ForestsNative Wetland TreesTrees that are at or Near the Southern Limit of their Natural Range in PennsylvaniaTrees that are at or Near the Northern Limit of their Natural Range in PennsylvaniaTrees that are at or Near the Eastern Limit of their Natural Range in PennsylvaniaPennsylvania Trees Listed by Family, Chapter 2. In turn, trees that have National champion potential will be forwarded to American Forests. Trees are primarily identified by three things: their leaves, seeds, and bark. Fagus grandifolia. Learn More about PNPS. Others, such as chestnut and butternut, have become rare through the impact of insects or diseases. Full-Part Sun; Full-Part Shade; Shrubs & Trees; Shrubs & Trees. However, that forest is a fairly recent product of the geological evolution of Pennsylvania's landscape. Plants Native to Western Pennsylvania. By far, however, the largest proportion (70 percent) of forested land in the state is privately owned. A second wave of timber harvesting focused on hemlock bark, which was used in the leather tanning industry. Allegheny plum and pumpkin ash have been recommended for endangered status. We have included the various common names associated with each scientific name to help you find the right tree. With seasonal pruning it can be formed into an effective screen or hedge plant. There are always opportunities to help, regardless of your level of expertise. Descriptions, Illustrations, and Distribution Maps, Alder — Apple — Aralia — Arbor-vitae — Ash — Atlantic white-cedar — Basswood — Beebee tree — Beech — Birch — Blackgum — Blackhaw — Bladdernut — Buckeye — Catalpa — Cherry — Chestnut — Chinese toon-tree — Corktree — Crabapple — Dogwood — Douglas-fir — Elm — Empress-tree — Fir — Fringetree — Ginkgo — Golden rain-tree — Hackberry — Hawthorn — Hemlock — Hickory — Holly — Honey-locust — Hoptree — Hop-hornbeam — Hornbeam — Juniper — Katsura-tree — Kentucky coffee-tree — Larch — Locust — Magnolia — Maple — Mimosa — Mountain-ash — Mulberry — Oak — Osage-orange — Pagoda-tree — Paper-mulberry — Pawpaw — Pear — Persimmon — Photinia — Pine — Plum — Poplar — Prickly-ash — Redbud — Sapphire-berry — Sassafras — Shadbush — Silverbell — Snowbell — Sourwood — Spruce — Sumac — Sweetgum — Sycamore — Tree-of-heaven — Tuliptree — Walnut — Willow — Witch-hazell, Chapter 4. white oak 2. We have over 1000 trees listed across the state that are big locally, or are the biggest in the state. Other accounts describe extensive grasslands and gallery-type forests in which one could "drive a carriage unhindered," apparently the product of Native Americans' regular use of fire to manage the landscape. Trees with a more western distribution that reach Pennsylvania include Shumard oak, bur oak, shingle oak, and Kentucky coffee-tree. The "Great Clearcut"—The invention of the geared logging locomotive set the stage for the great clearcut of Pennsylvania's forests that took place between 1890 and 1930. This medium-sized tree is favored for its uniform, upright growth. Quercus rubra. The first European settlers found extensive clearings created by Native Americans in the Cumberland Valley, Penns Valley in Centre County, and the Wyoming Valley, as well as other sites. Mild winters have allowed the adelgid to spread rapidly. There are always opportunities to help, regardless of your level of expertise. Others including corktree, bee-bee tree, callery pear, and mimosa are just beginning to show invasive tendencies. Living here, you see trees everyday, but when was the last time you really looked at the ones surrounding you? Abandoned farmland, and cleared or timbered land will become forested again through a natural process known as secondary succession. PH: 814-443-2991, Nate Shumaker Trees are also beautiful and restful to look at, conveying a sense of pleasure and well-being. In Pennsylvania, the clearing for farming and cutting trees for commercial uses that began with the first European arrivals had, by 1900, reduced the forest cover from 90-95 percent of the land area to 32 percent. The tree's acorns were made into a flour by Native Americans and are an important food source for wildlife. Eighteen thousand years ago the northeastern and northwestern corners of the state were covered with ice, and tundra and boreal forests covered the rest of the state. Don’t worry if you see beetles on the flowers – they are the only pollinators who will visit. Rarity occurs for several reasons; some native Pennsylvania trees such as balsam fir, tamarack, and black spruce are northern species that are at their southern limit of range in Pennsylvania. IMAGE INFORMATION; Striped Maple Moisture: Med Sun: Part/Shade Hgt. Fourteen other smaller fragments are preserved in state forests or state parks. Understory trees typically include moosewood, witch-hazel, mountain holly, and shadbush. American beech 4. Classified as threatened are American holly, umbrella magnolia, sweetbay magnolia, and common hop-tree. Recent outbreaks of native insects such as elm spanworm, forest tent caterpillar, eastern tent caterpillar, and cherry scallop-shell moth have caused extensive tree death in some parts of the state. Alluvium is typically made up of a variety of materials, including fine particles Rare SpeciesThe abundance of individual tree species varies greatly from those that are found throughout the state in a variety of habitats such as red maple, beech, and red oak, to those that are very limited in their occurrence. Too many deer—Over-abundant deer are a serious threat to the health of forests throughout the state. Others, such as American holly, sweetbay magnolia, southern red oak, willow oak, chinquapin, and short-needle pine, just reach the state from the south. You can submit trees for consideration for champion status to this website. Commercial uses include flooring, whiskey barrels and boat building. Some of them such as Norway maple, tree-of-heaven, and empress-tree have seriously impacted remnant forests in urban and suburban areas. 243979, Member of the Somerset County Chamber of Commerce. A Brief History of Penn's WoodsThe land that greeted the earliest Europeans to arrive in Pennsylvania was primarily forested, broken only by rivers, occasional wetlands, and clearings associated with Native American villages. Cutting Down the TreesAs European settlers claimed the land, taming the wilderness meant cutting down trees and eradicating some forest wildlife, especially large predators, in order to make room for farms, towns, and villages and to assure the safety of pioneer families and their livestock. Platanus occidentalis . Development of a system of forest reserves, now known as state forests, began in 1897 with the acquisition of abandoned cut-over lands that were sold at tax sales. The current owner, a horticulturist, places the tree's age at approximately 700 years. Gaining in popularity, Pawpaws have the largest fruits of native fruit trees. Plant two for better fruit set. Authoritative, encyclopedic, lavishly illustrated guide to the trees of the state and region—from the Morris Arboretum, the official arboretum of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. ISA Certified Arborist® Audubon Pennsylvania . The famous Revolutionary War frigate USS Constitution, “Old Ironsides,” was made of White oak. Cat/R/M/S. Small scale garden/ landscape design and … Living here, you see trees everyday, but when was the last time you really looked at the ones surrounding you? The Tionesta Scenic and Natural Area in Allegheny National Forest in northwestern Pennsylvania includes the only sizable tract of old growth forest that remains in the state. Moist rich acidic soils. Native PA Species TREES for Stormwater Management in Erie County. Old photographs record the boom days at Masten, Golinza, Laquin, and many other sites that today are only names on a map, a few old foundations, or perhaps the site of a hunting camp. Four other tree species, short-leaf pine and three hawthorns, have been recommended for listing but a specific status has not yet been determined. Two trees that once grew here, Atlantic white cedar and swamp cottonwood, are extirpated (gone from the state). As the ice receded, species that had found refuge farther south gradually returned. See more ideas about plants, native plants, perennials. Beech bark disease, which appeared in Nova Scotia about 1920, is still spreading across the northern half of the state reducing beech to groves of young sapling-size root shoots. Trees of Pennsylvania All 40; Taxonomy; 30 Flowering Plants Subphylum Angiospermae; 10 Conifers Class Pinopsida; Search. Many others have arrived subsequently through deliberate or accidental introductions from other parts of the world. Clearcutting was frequently followed by fires; started by sparks from the railroads, the fires burned rapidly and fiercely through the slash left after logging. Native vs. introduced species—Native species are defined as those that were here before the first Europeans arrived. Combining plants that grow well in the same natural habitats will help create healthy, vigorous plantings. Oak forests include red oak-mixed hardwood type on lower slopes where red and white oaks occur mixed with tuliptree, red maple, and hickories. Pennsylvania's location spanning 40 degrees - 42 degrees north latitude and its varied terrain support 108 species of native trees and many other introduced from Europe and Asia. Trees came back not only on cutover lands, but also on abandoned farmland; today, second growth forests cover 59 percent of the state's land area. Today many of the old railroad beds are the basis for a network of hiking trails. We are an all volunteer, member based, non-profit organization. Apr 4, 2015 - Explore Lynn's board "Native plants of Pennsylvania", followed by 211 people on Pinterest. You probably even see these in your own yard and don’t even know it. Congratulations to Pete … Trees listed as endangered in Pennsylvania are balsam poplar, beach plum, southern red oak, willow oak, Shumard oak, and showy mountain ash. Black or “Swamp” Ash. Initially open land will be colonized by species such as eastern red cedar, tuliptree, aspens, or red maple that grow well in the high light conditions of open fields. The white oak is a widespread forest tree in Pennsylvania and can reach 80 to 1,000 feet high. More non-native plants are introduced every year. Pennsylvania's Forest Heritage. Pennsylvania, with its unique geographical position, has 102 kinds of trees native to the State, although there are numerous introduced species growing and thriving in this latitude and climate. On drier upper slopes and ridge tops throughout the central Pennsylvania, oak forests are dominated by white, black, and chestnut oak are common. .". The major forest types are northern hardwood forest, oak-hickory forest, Great Lakes beech-maple forest, and mixed mesophytic forest. River birch occurs along rivers and streams in the eastern part of the state but not in the west. Wood not needed for fuel or building material was often burned early in the process of clearing the land; after all, there was a seemingly unlimited supply. Lancaster County’s Pennsylvania Native Tree and Shrub guide has been developed to increase the understanding and awareness of residents and officials of the environmental importance of native plant conservation and utilization. Some native species such as umbrella magnolia and American holly are frequently cultivated and sometimes spread into nearby woodlands from cultivated sources, making a determination of their true status more difficult. Appears as a tuft of grass. In areas near early iron furnaces, colliers cut trees (preferably oak or chestnut) and stacked them in conical piles built in the woods. We have included the various common names associated with each scientific name to help you find the right tree. The piles of logs were covered with earth and burned to produce charcoal that was then hauled by wagon to the iron works. Oak and other hardwoods are also important. In the northeastern and northwestern corners of the state, in areas covered by ice during the most recent glaciation, peat deposits support forests with a northern character dominated by black spruce and tamarack. Early lumbering—Tall, straight, and suitable for masts for ships, the eastern white pine was the first large-scale target of waves of loggers who assaulted Pennsylvania's forests. Fall 2020 Photo Contest Winner. See more ideas about native plants, plants, wild flowers. Paw Paws are taprooted plants that transplant most successfully while dormant or nearly so. The herbaceous layer is very rich and diverse. Swamp forests along Lake Erie are the only locations where pumpkin ash occurs. This forest type is characterized by a mixture of hardwoods and conifers and usually contains beech, birch, sugar maple, hemlock, and white pine in the canopy. The state distribution maps in the species info boxes below are from the USDA NRCS PLANTS Database at plants.usda.gov.In instances where state specific maps are unavailable, the US distribution map will be used in its place. Pennsylvania Trees Objective for this presentation: ... Eastern Native Americans made a flour from them. The rarest native species are designated by the Pennsylvania Natural Diversity Inventory (PNDI) and protected under the Wild Plant Conservation Act. Charcoal making utilized small trees and could be done on a 25-year rotation in most areas. The Sacred Oak is currently the biggest tree in Berks County and is on the Pennsylvania Forestry Association's Champion Trees of Pennsylvania website. Their banana like fruits add interest to the landscape. The northern hardwood forest occupies the northern third of the state and extends south at high elevations along the Allegheny Front. Learn More about PNPS. Shale barrens and limestone barrens of the Ridge and Valley physiographic province contain drought-tolerant species including red cedar, Virginia pine, table mountain pine, yellow oak, post oak, hackberry, and sumac. The timber industry remains an important part of Pennsylvania's economy, totaling nearly $5 billion per year and providing about 100,000 jobs. You are being redirected to the DCNR eLibrary. Sumac fruit is included, Article and photo courtesy of Karen Smith. The mixed mesophytic forests, which reach their greatest development in the Smoky Mountains, just reach southern Pennsylvania. An iron furnace required 20,000-35,000 acres of forest to support it on a sustainable basis. Menu. The Forest TodayDespite dire predictions of Rothrock and others, Pennsylvania's forests did recover in the years following the great clearcut. Historically, the tree's lumber was important in making whiskey barrels and in ship building. However, short-term fencing does not allow forest shrubs or wildflowers, which never outgrow the reach of deer, to escape devastation. The gypsy moth, which spread into the state following its accidental release in eastern Massachusetts in 1869, reduced the importance of oaks through preferential feeding on members of the genus Quercus. Never needs cutting unless to tidy. 4 | Pennsylvania Native Trees and Shrubs Lancaster County Planning Commission Terms Alluvium soil: loose, unconsolidated (not cemented together into a solid rock), or sediments, eroded, deposited, and reshaped by water in some form in a non-marine setting. Pennsylvania native plants are plants that thrived in the area before settlement. 6 Common Serviceberry—Amelanchier arborea— BF, PC,SY, LG, S Also know as Shadbush, this deciduous small tree grows from 15-25 ft. and is often found on rocky bluffs and upper slopes. In addition to 2.1 million acres of state forests, Pennsylvania's publicly owned forest lands include another 277,000 acres in 116 state parks. Before 1910, American chestnut was an important component of Pennsylvania's oak forests, but the accidental introduction of chestnut blight in New York City in 1904 resulted in chestnut's shift from widespread canopy dominant to minor status within just a few decades. Research is ongoing to understand the cause(s) of a widespread dieback of sugar maple centered in Pennsylvania. At the turn of the 21st century, about 1,300 species of non-native plants existed in Pennsylvania outside of … Big Trees of Pennsylvania Register. You can support us by becoming a member, making a donation, and/or volunteering . Soil nutrient changes caused by acid rain appear to be part of the problem. The railroad logging era, as it is known, allowed loggers to reach the vast interior of the state's forests. To learn more about the native plants we currently offer, select the appropriate native plant type. American sycamore 3. Additionally, 1,300 non-native species exist throughout the state. By 1904 the system held about half a million acres; today the state forests total 2.1 million acres. We didn’t want to stop there! There are approximately 2,100 native plants in Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania's State Tree is quite versatile in the ways it can be used in the landscape. flowering dogwood 5. 494 Harvest Drive Rockwood, PA 15557 Thanks to all for your continued support of this program. It also occurs further south on north-facing slopes and cool, moist ravines. 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